Populism

Understanding Populism

Populism is not only a rhetoric but an ideology which aims to create “us versus them” dichotomy in a society. Unlike other ideologies such as Liberalism, Socialism, Nationalism etc. Populism is not a complex ideology yet widespread across all over the world and interwoven with other ideologies often with nationalism and socialism. Populism is not a separate ideology it is a rhetoric which changes the essence of an ideology which it cooperates. Its claims and proposals are usually too general and vague so as a less detailed information can easily spread in a society. Currently, in central-eastern Europe right-wing populism is a common phenomenon. It can be considered as a rough and unintellectual reaction towards modernization. Continue reading “Populism”

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Does Presidentialism Breed Dictatorship? – The Case of Turkey and The Erdogan Regime

Research Problem

Perils of Presidentialism

Presidentialism has long been discussed in terms of its suitability for stable and sustainable democracy. Although it is widely accepted one of the democratic forms of government, it is not without problems. The presidential system contains a strong executive rigidly separated from the legislature and independent judiciary which superficially looks convenient for democratic principles. However, a deeper look at presidential system may reveal many problems. One of the main problems which I believe is intrinsic to presidential systems is the possibility of turning into a dictatorship. There are several reasons that make this claim reasonable. Firstly, Presidential systems often create a strong political figure which is the result of the personalization of power. Thus, the political atmosphere in a presidential system and governing style depends on the characteristic of a president (Linz, 1990). Secondly, Since the executive and the legislative branches are strictly divided a president often does not have to have an approval of the legislature to form the cabinet, therefore, it is highly likely that the cabinet will be more dependent on a president. In a system with weak democratic institutions it might create a situation where a president can be able to evade checks and balances especially considering presidents in most presidential systems is also the head of political parties, it increases the chance for president whose party has the majority in legislature will take the control of both legislature and the executive and indirectly the judiciary. Continue reading “Does Presidentialism Breed Dictatorship? – The Case of Turkey and The Erdogan Regime”

Summary of Tractatus – Early Wittgenstein

The determination of philosophy has always been controversial. Is it really that philosophy is able to solve its problems willfully by its methods itself? Does philosophy answer the asked questions? According to the widespread opinion, the task of philosophy is to ask questions, not to answer them. The philosophy was forced to change its problematic every time. During centuries, the questions which philosophy dealt with were not asked by philosophy itself. Continue reading “Summary of Tractatus – Early Wittgenstein”

Nə üçün İrandan qorxmalıyıq?

 

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Ashura 2013: Shia Muslims Practise Ritual Self-Flagellation in Muharram

Son vaxtlar Facebookda paylaşılan İranla bağlı xəbərlərin altında mütləq İranı müdafiə edən adamlar qarşıma çıxır. Bu xəbərin İran lehinə ya əleyhinə olmasından asılı olmayaraq İranı müdafiə edən şərhkər yazırlar sanki, hamısı bir yerdən idarə olunurmuş kimi, bu adamların İranı müdafiə etmə metodları tamamilə eynidir. Üç fərqli üsul seçilir ya İranı dəstəkləyən bəzən yalan bəzən doğru bir bilgi paylaşılır ya Azərbaycandakı hazırkı, bərbad sosial-iqtisadi (əsasən siyasi yox) vəziyyət yada salınaraq İrandakı vəziyyətin necə yaxşı olduğunu göstərərək və nəhayət nə əcəbsə Türkiyəyə qarşı nifrət dolu qarayaxmalar ən yaxşı halda tənqidlər vasitəsilə İran atəşli şəkildə müdafiə olunur. Şiəliyin isə birləşdirici alət olduğunu deməyimə heç ehtiyac da yoxdur. Şiəlik təbii ki, hər zaman vurğulanır. İnsanların dini duyğularının istismarı İranpərəstlərin ənənəvi peşəsidir. Continue reading “Nə üçün İrandan qorxmalıyıq?”

Research Methods of democratization

This essay is attempt to examine and compare schools of empirical democracy research which are written in Michael Coppedge’s book “Democratization and Research methods”

Coppedge in his book analyses four distinct methods that democratization is studied through and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. When he analyses the methods he also gives examples for each method to distinguish them by their key features. Such as thickness and thinness, eligibility for inferences, the probability to create integrated theories etc.

In this essay, I will analyze all four empirical methods and I will discuss which of them is more suitable for studying democratization process. Continue reading “Research Methods of democratization”

Human Nature and Society

Introduction
Why is it important to define human nature? Do the basic elements of human nature affect the society? Many thinkers see humans as a cornerstone of society when they construct their thesis on society. This suggests that as a cornerstone of society human nature does indeed influence the structure and character of a society. At the same time, this stance helps to understand the ratio between the human influence and the influence of the random historical and natural events on society. On the other hand, a society itself may change human nature. However, it must be clarified whether it changes both the basis of human nature or its shape? Continue reading “Human Nature and Society”

Başkanlık Sistemi Çare Olabilir Mi? – Fevzi Demir

Son zamanlarda ortaya atılan “başkanlık sistemi” acaba ülke sorunlarının çözümünde çare olabilir mi? Gerçi AK Partinin önerdiği “partili cumhurbaşkanı” modelinin “kuvvetler ayrılığını” değil, “kuvvetler birliğini” öngören ve tek adam elinde toplayan “başkanlık sistemi” ile ABD başkanlık sistemi arasında çok büyük farklar vardır. SHUGART’ın sınıflandırmasından yola çıkılacak olursa, AK Partinin önerisi daha çok bugün baskıcı bir otoriter sistemle yönetilen
Ermenistan, Beyaz Rusya, Kazakistan, Kırgızistan, Rusya, Türkmenistan ve Ukrayna gibi “başkancı-parlamenter sistemlere” benzemektedir. Ancak biz, kamuoyunda sürekli gündemde olan ABD sisteminin ülkeyi nerelere götüreceği ve ülke sorunlarının çözü-
münde ne derece işe yarayacağı konusunda bile kuşkular taşıyoruz. Çünkü, ABD başkanlık sistemi “sert” bir “kuvvetler ayrılığına” dayanırken, bizde halen AK Parti tarafından önerilen “başkancı-parlamenter sistem”, mevcut Siyasi Partiler Kanunu ve Seçim Kanunu ile gerekli olan Yargı Bağımsızlığı konusundaki eksiklikler göz önüne alındığında, sistemin “sert” bir “kuvvetler birliğine” dönüşmesi kaçınılmaz olabilecektir. Continue reading “Başkanlık Sistemi Çare Olabilir Mi? – Fevzi Demir”